This study identified that patients are not engaged in discussions or decisions about implantable medical devices.
Gagliardi, A. R., Lehoux, P., Ducey, A., Easty, A., Ross, S., Bell, C. M., & Urbach, D. R. (2017). Factors constraining patient engagement in implantable medical device discussions and decisions: Interviews with physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 29(2) :276-282.